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      當前位置:主頁 > 百科 > 歷史解密 >

      兵馬俑為什么都不戴頭盔 揭秘兵馬俑沒有頭盔的原因

      發布時間:2019-01-24 17:03 | 作者:美文在線 | 來源:未知 | 瀏覽: 次|類別:歷史解密

        秦始皇陵兵馬俑,已經是享譽世界,頗為壯觀的,然而兵馬俑也只是一個陪葬,就能夠如此舉世聞名,很難想象如果有一天,秦始皇陵被發掘出來,會是一副怎樣的景象。不過關于兵馬俑,很多人也都存在著非常多的疑惑,我們知道,古代士兵作戰的時候總是會穿戴好盔甲,尤其保護好自己的頭部,但是兵馬俑里面那么多的人俑,卻沒有一個是帶著頭盔的,這是為什么?歷史上秦國軍隊作戰的時候,難道也是不戴頭盔嗎?
        秦始皇兵馬俑的現世,讓秦朝的輝煌以實物的形式展現在眾人面前,同時也讓大家了解到當年號稱最強軍隊的秦軍,到底是什么樣子。
        盡管這些兵馬俑形態各異,但是他們無不挺胸抬頭,氣宇軒昂,只是總覺得哪里不太對勁。既然是秦軍,那這些應該都是士兵的樣子,可是這么多兵馬俑當中,卻沒有一個戴著軍人應該有的頭盔,除了什么都沒戴的,剩下的就都是些戴著普通帽子的人,說是在城里當官的都有人信。
        這么一說,我們就會將目光放到這些士兵的其他裝備上,發現除了沒有頭盔之外,這些士兵身上穿的鎧甲也很簡潔,只能護住軀干部分,而擅長遠攻的弩兵就更可憐了,什么防身的裝備都沒穿。
        要說在那個年代,沒有什么槍炮,都是些冷兵器,穿著防御力強的護甲是非常有用的,如果你可以刀槍不入,那在戰場上不就是所向披靡嘛!那么威名遠揚的秦軍為什么沒有這么重要的裝備呢?
        按照我們對秦朝的認識,那個時期經過商鞅變法之后,秦國的經濟發展很快,應該不存在穿不起盔甲這一說,那么他們為什么會是這種形態,后來出土的一些竹簡或許可以解釋這種情況。
        有一份竹簡當中,記載了這樣的一段話。秦國的士兵常常會為了爭著拿敵人的首級而自相殘殺,正是這么一個小小的記錄,讓我們了解到了,秦國時期的軍功授爵制度。
        秦統一中國前135年,改革家商鞅為秦國制訂了一套任何別的國家都無法忍受的嚴苛法律。從此后,整個秦國都嚴格地按照這套法律運轉,它影響了六代秦人,直到秦始皇。商鞅規定:“秦國的士兵只要斬獲敵人一個首級,就可以獲得爵位一級、田宅一處和仆人數個。斬殺的首級越多,獲得的爵位就越高。”這就是商鞅著名的軍功授爵制度。
        如果一個士兵在戰場上斬獲兩個敵人首級,他做囚犯的父母就可以立即成為自由人,如果他的妻子是奴隸,也可以轉為平民。對于重視家族傳承的中國人來說,軍功爵是可以傳子的,如果父親戰死疆場,他的功勞可以記在兒子頭上,一人獲得軍功,全家都可以受益。
        在這樣的利益驅使下,士兵們掙搶敵人首級就是可以理解的了。可以想象,在秦軍將士的眼中,敵人的頭顱就是換取地位和財富的等價貨幣。兩千年前的秦國,想必是一個軍裝閃閃發亮的國度,對于千千萬萬的秦人來說,上戰場不僅是為國家戰斗,而且是通向財富和榮譽,擺脫貧困卑微地位的惟一出路。雖然秦人努力學習中原文明,但他們從未真正接受過中原文明優雅精致、中庸謙讓的倫理道德。在秦人看來,尚武、為利益而競爭是天經地義的。
        在商鞅的規定當中,爵位和士兵戰績的聯系是非常緊密的,每拿下敵人的一個首級,就可以封賞一級爵位,同時附帶有田產和仆人,所以說手上的戰績越多,那么爵位就會越高,相應的待遇也就越好。而這待遇當中,除了前面我們說到的這些,還可以將家中犯了錯的犯人或者是奴隸都轉化成平民百姓,如果在戰場上犧牲了,那么他身上的功績將自動轉到下一代或者是親戚的身上。
        這樣一來,就像現在的股份一樣,你工作不僅僅是在給公司賺錢,也是在為自己賺錢。而秦國的士兵就是不僅為國效力,還能為家里謀福利,所以大家當然都會在戰場上賣命,也就出現了為爭人頭而相互廝打的現象了。
        再加上秦國人大多都是西北漢子,他們都非常勇猛,就和成吉思汗一樣,都崇尚武力,每當出征的時候,他們都會大口喝酒,然后在戰場上盡情發泄,盔甲只會阻擋他們的熱情,所以干脆就不穿了。
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