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      當前位置:主頁 > 百科 > 科普知識 >

      “左撇子”是怎么造成的?

      發布時間:2019-01-24 16:53 | 作者:曉默 | 來源:微科普 | 瀏覽: 次|類別:科普知識

       
      (網絡配圖,與此文無關)
             
             長期以來科學家們試圖解釋為什么人們存在不同的用手習慣(即左撇子或右撇子),然而,幾十年來的主流觀點是這種差異的形成根源在于大腦的不同。不過,最新的一項科學研究揭示了大腦可能不是唯一的決定右手習慣的原因,脊椎神經可能也具有重要的作用。
       
             來自德國Ruhr大學的生物心理學家們發現胚胎在子宮中發育的過程中就已經出現了脊神經的遺傳活性不對稱的特征,這與嬰兒出生后的左右手偏好可能存在一定聯系。事實上,目前這僅僅是一個非常初步的假說,還需要很多獨立的重復試驗加以驗證。
       
             不過,盡管這一研究十分初步,但還是提供了非常有意思的一種可能:即是否在我們的大腦能夠控制行動之前,我們的擁手習慣就已經被確定了呢?1980年的一項超聲掃描證據表明左右手的偏好性在胚胎發育8周的時候就已經出現了,而在10周左右的時候就能夠輕易地檢測到。另外,在胚胎發育13周左右,胎兒就已經開始吮吸自己的左手或右手的大拇指了。
       
             由于我們的上肢與手的運動是由腦部的運動皮層決定的,科學家們長期以來都在尋找運動皮層中不同區域的基因表達差異,試圖解釋如此早的用手偏好性發生的機制。不過在發育中的胚胎中,運動皮層并不總能夠與脊椎神經束想連接。最早的用手偏好發生時,我們的脊髓神經與大腦還沒有產生連接。
       
             因此,研究者們希望了解是否脊髓神經本身就能夠影響人們的用手習慣。
       
             他們分析了5個人類胎兒在發育8-12周時脊髓神經中的基因表達情況。結果顯示:在8周左右,胎兒的左右脊髓神經中控制肢體運動的相關基因就已經發生了明顯的表達差異。
       
             另外,他們還分析了這種基因表達差異產生的原因,結果顯示,環境因素具有最重要的影響。
       
             環境因素能夠通過表觀遺傳學修飾的方式調控基因的表達。而研究表明通過表觀遺傳學與環境因素的影響,脊髓神經束發生了明顯的表達不對稱性。
       
             相關研究結果發表在了《elife》雜志上。
       

      下一篇:沒有了 上一篇: 吃雞蛋升膽固醇沒道理

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